Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Public Finance

Public finance is a field of economics concerned with paying for collective or governmental activities, and with the administration and design of those activities. The field is often divided into questions of what the government or collective organizations should do or are doing, and question of how to pay for those activities. This definition of public finance is based on www.en.wikipedia.com.

The purview of public finance is considered to be threefold: governmental effects on
  1. Efficient allocation of resource,
  2. Distribution of income, and
  3. Macroeconomic stabilization.
The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In theory, under certain circumstances private markets will allocate goods and services among individuals efficiently (in the sense that no waste occurs and that individual tastes are matching with the economy's productive abilities).
If private markets were able to provide efficient outcomes and if the distribution of income were socially acceptable, the there would be little or no scope for government. In many cases, however, conditions for private market efficiency are violated. For example, if many people can enjoy the same good at the same time (non-rival, non-excluded consumption), then private markets may supply too little of that good. National defense is one example of non-rival consumption, or of a public good.

"Market failure" occurs when private markets do not allocate goods or services efficiently. The existence of market failure provides an efficiency-based rationale for collective or governmental provision of goods and services. Externalities, public goods, informational advantages, strong economies of scale, and network effects can cause market failure. Public provision via a government or a voluntary association, however, is subject to other inefficiencies, termed "government failure".

Under broad assumptions, government decisions about the efficient scope and level of activities can be efficiently separated from decisions about the design of taxation systems (Diamond-Mirless separation). In this view, public sector programs should be designed to maximize social benefits minus cost (cost benefit analysis), and then revenues needed to pay for those expenditures should be raised through a taxation system that creates the fewest efficiency losses caused by distortion of economic activity as possible. In practice, government budgeting or public budgeting is substantally more complicated and often results in inefficient practices.

Government can pay for spending by borrowing (for example, with government bonds), although borrowing is a method of distributing tax burdens through time rather than a replacement for taxes. A deficit is the difference between government spending and revenues. The accumulation of deficits over time is the total public debt. Deficit finance allows governments to smooth tax burdens over time, and gives governments an important fiscal policy tool. Deficits can also narrow the option of successor governments.

Public finance is closely connected to issues of income distribution and social equity. Governments can reallocate income through transfer payment or by designing tax systems that treat high-income and low-income households differently. The Public Choice approach to public finance seeks to explain how self-interested voters, politicians, and bureaucrats actually operate, rather than how they should operate.

Then, the aggregate of economic relationships arising from the creation and use of centralized and decentralized monetary resources. Public finance originated under conditions of regular commodity money exchange as a result of the development of the state and the state's requirement for resources. The essence of public finance, the sphere of commodity-money relations that public finance encompasses, the role of public finance in social production, and the patterns governing the development of public finance are determined by the economics structure of society and the class nature of the state.

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